Due to the nuclear phase-out in 2022 and the coal phase-out in 2038, the expansion of heat pumps, 5G and the e-mobility turnaround, the demand for balancing energy (primary, secondary, tertiary balancing energy) will increase exponentially. Batteries, as secondary and tertiary control energy storage, can meet most of this demand.
One of the issues facing the adoption of e-mobility is the high cost of electricity to charge a car battery.
In many places, a kWh already costs about 30 cents for a residential user; charging piles often charge about 40 cents/kWh (up to 70 cents for DC supercharging, but full e-charging with 15-20 times the waiting time). Well over 70% of electricity costs are needed for taxes and fees. Since modern diesel and gasoline vehicles are sometimes below 20 cents/kWh due to their low consumption, the advantage of e-mobiles is not yet comprehensible in terms of price. As a reminder, less than 30 cents per kWh would be possible with battery swap technology due to its greater volume.
German municipalities with their approximately 900 local grids are warned by experts (TU Munich, Oliver Wyman) that a lack of supply from 2032 onwards can lead to area-wide blackouts in the power grid in an extreme manner (95% probability). The resulting consequences will have to be dealt with in the near future! Preparations for distribution grids must begin now, as local power outages in subgrids can be expected as early as 2022 (TU Berlin). The blanket calculation of probabilities and extrapolation of resilience is only theoretical and does not save municipalities and their partners from defined and individual blackout preparedness. Given the tight financial situation and the current economic outlook, it is necessary to invest and budget in a particularly sustainable manner. Therefore, the focus should be on implementing charging infrastructure that itself contributes to blackout prevention.
Bicycle-hostile infrastructure, deforestation of trees, more vandalism, more battery waste due to higher wear and tear, long waiting times at the pillars.